Impact of Health Infrastructure on Child Health in Punjab, Pakistan


  • Seemab Gillani PhD Scholar, School of Economics and Finance, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China
  • Muhammad Azhar Bhatti Associate Lecturer, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan
  • Anum Ali M.Phil. Scholar, Department of Economics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Pakistan
  • Tusawar Iftikhar Ahmad Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Pakistan



Health Infrastructure, Infant Mortality, Underweight, Remittances


The objective of the study is to find the impact of health infrastructure on child health in Punjab, Pakistan. The study used the panel data collected from Punjab development statistics (PDS) between 2010 and 2016 for 35 districts of Punjab, Pakistan. The Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) is used for the current analysis. Child health in terms of infant mortality and underweight is used as dependent variable and health infrastructures, ownership of house, receiving remittances, physical access to safe drinking water, improved sanitation are independent variables. Health infrastructure is the index of four variables number of hospitals, number of dispensaries, number of mother and child health center and number of rural health centers. Results of the study conclude that health infrastructure is an important determinant of child health. There is a strong positive influence of health infrastructure in terms of different type of hospitals, dispensaries, rural health centers and mother and child health care centers is found on child health.


Abbas, F., & Hiemenz, U. (2013). What determines public health expenditures in Pakistan? Role of income, urbanization and unemployment. Economic Change and Restructuring, 46(4), 341-362. doi:

Acosta, P., Calderon, C., Fajnzylber, P., & Lopez, H. (2008). What is the impact of international remittances on poverty and inequality in Latin America? World Development, 36(1), 89-114. doi:

Ahmad, T. I., Shafiq, M. N., & Gillani, S. (2019). Foreign Remittances and Human Resource Development in Developing Countries. IUB Journal of Social Sciences, 1(1), 43-60.

Amuedo-Dorantes, C., & Pozo, S. (2006). Migration, remittances, and male and female employment patterns. American Economic Review, 96(2), 222-226. doi:

Amuedo?Dorantes, C., & De la Rica, S. (2007). Labour market assimilation of recent immigrants in Spain. British journal of industrial relations, 45(2), 257-284. doi:

Ang, J. B. (2010). The determinants of health care expenditure in Australia. Applied Economics Letters, 17(7), 639-644. doi:

Black, R. E., Allen, L. H., Bhutta, Z. A., Caulfield, L. E., De Onis, M., Ezzati, M., . . . Group, C. U. S. (2008). Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. The Lancet, 371(9608), 243-260. doi:

Chamberlain, C., & Johnson, G. (2001). The debate about homelessness. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 36(1), 35-50. doi:

Chowdhury, A. M. R., Bhuiya, A., Chowdhury, M. E., Rasheed, S., Hussain, Z., & Chen, L. C. (2013). The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty. The Lancet, 382(9906), 1734-1745. doi:

D'souza, R. M., & Bryant, J. H. (1999). Determinants of childhood mortality in slums of Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of health & population in developing countries, 2(1), 33-44. doi:

Datar, A., Mukherji, A., & Sood, N. (2007). Health infrastructure & immunization coverage in rural India. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 125(1), 31-42.

De, P. K., & Ratha, D. (2012). Impact of remittances on household income, asset and human capital: Evidence from Sri Lanka. Migration and Development, 1(1), 163-179. doi:

Esrey, S. A., Potash, J. B., Roberts, L., & Shiff, C. (1991). Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. Bulletin of the World Health organization, 69(5), 609-621.

FAO. (2015). Nutrition Country Profiles, Pakistan. Retrieved from

Fay, M., Leipziger, D., Wodon, Q., & Yepes, T. (2005). Achieving child-health-related Millennium Development Goals: The role of infrastructure. World Development, 33(8), 1267-1284. doi:

Fewtrell, L., Kaufmann, R. B., Kay, D., Enanoria, W., Haller, L., & Colford Jr, J. M. (2005). Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet infectious diseases, 5(1), 42-52. doi:

Fuller-Thomson, E., Noack, A. M., & George, U. (2011). Health decline among recent immigrants to Canada: findings from a nationally-representative longitudinal survey. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 102(4), 273-280. doi:

Gokhale, M. K., Rao, S. S., & Garole, V. R. (2002). Infant mortality in India: use of maternal and child health services in relation to literacy status. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 20(2), 138-147.

Grossman, M. (1972). The Demand for Health: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation. New York: NBER.

Hildebrandt, N., McKenzie, D. J., Esquivel, G., & Schargrodsky, E. (2005). The effects of migration on child health in Mexico. Economia, 6(1), 257-289.

Huq, M. N., & Tasnim, T. (2008). Maternal education and child healthcare in Bangladesh. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 12(1), 43-51. doi:

Jacobs, A. J., Newland, J. R., & Green, R. K. (1982). Pure choriocarcinoma of the ovary. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 37(10), 603-609.

Kosec, K. (2014). The child health implications of privatizing Africa's urban water supply. Journal of health economics, 35, 1-19. doi:

Larrea, C., & Kawachi, I. (2005). Does economic inequality affect child malnutrition? The case of Ecuador. Social science & medicine, 60(1), 165-178. doi:

Mahmud, G., Zaman, F., Jafarey, S., Khan, R., Sohail, R., & Fatima, S. (2011). Achieving millennium development goals 4 and 5 in Pakistan. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 118, 69-77. doi:

Majeed, M. T., & Gillani, S. (2017). State capacity and health outcomes: An empirical Analysis. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, 11(2), 671-697.

Mamoon, D., Raza, S., & Arshed, N. (2014). Impact of health capital and education on infant mortality rate of districts of punjab. Journal of Management and Research, 1(2), 1-9. doi:

Maniruzzaman, M., Suri, H. S., Kumar, N., Abedin, M. M., Rahman, M. J., El-Baz, A., . . . Suri, J. S. (2018). Risk factors of neonatal mortality and child mortality in Bangladesh. Journal of global health, 8(1). doi:

Mashal, T., Takano, T., Nakamura, K., Kizuki, M., Hemat, S., Watanabe, M., & Seino, K. (2008). Factors associated with the health and nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in Afghanistan: family behaviour related to women and past experience of war-related hardships. BMC public health, 8(1), 1-13. doi:

Miller, J. E., & Rodgers, Y. V. (2009). Mother’s education and children’s nutritional status: new evidence from Cambodia. Asian Development Review, 26(1), 131-165.

Montgomery, M. A., & Elimelech, M. (2007). Water and sanitation in developing countries: including health in the equation. Environmental science & technology, 41(1), 17-24.

Omariba, D., Beaujot, R., & Rajulton, F. (2007). Determinants of infant and child mortality in Kenya: an analysis controlling for frailty effects. Population Research and Policy Review, 26(3), 299-321. doi:

Ratha, D. (2013). The impact of remittances on economic growth and poverty reduction. Policy Brief, 8(1), 1-13.

Ravallion, M. (2007). “Achieving Child-Health-Related Millennium Development Goals: The Role of Infrastructure” A Comment. World Development, 35(5), 920-928. doi:

Rieger, M., & Wagner, N. (2015). Child health, its dynamic interaction with nutrition and health memory–Evidence from Senegal. Economics & Human Biology, 16, 135-145. doi:

Roemer, M. I. (1961). Bed supply and hospital utilization: a natural experiment. Hospitals, 35, 36-42.

Schultz, T. P. (2010). Health human capital and economic development. Journal of African Economies, 19(suppl_3), 12-80. doi:

Shafiq, M. N., & Gillani, S. (2018). Health Outcomes of Remittances in Developing Economies: An Empirical Analysis. Pakistan Journal of Economic Studies, 1(1), 1-20.

Shehzad, S. (2006). The determinants of child health in Pakistan: an economic analysis. Social indicators research, 78(3), 531-556. doi:

Stuckler, D., Basu, S., & McKee, M. (2010). Budget crises, health, and social welfare programmes. Bmj, 340. doi:

UNICEF. (2012). Annual Report. In. Islamabad, Pakistan.

UNICEF. (2013). The Right Ingredients: The Need to Invest in Child Nutrition. In. London, UK.

Valdivia, M. (2004). Poverty, health infrastructure and the nutrition of Peruvian children. Economics & Human Biology, 2(3), 489-510. doi:

Vladicescu, N., Cantarji, V., & Jigau, I. (2008). The impact of migration and remittances on communities, families and children in Moldova. New York, NY: United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).

WHO. (2015). Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition. World Health Organization: Islamabad, Pakistan. Retrieved from

Wood, C. H., & De Carvalho, J. A. M. (1988). The demography of inequality in Brazil. London: Cambridge University Press.




How to Cite

Gillani, S. . ., Bhatti, M. A. ., Ali, A. ., & Ahmad, T. I. . (2022). Impact of Health Infrastructure on Child Health in Punjab, Pakistan. Review of Economics and Development Studies, 8(2), 85-96.