Exploring the Individual and Interpersonal Obstructive Factors Affecting Contraceptive Usage among Married Fertile Women in Rural Vicinities of Multan District, Pakistan


  • Uzma Ishfaq M. Phil Scholar, Department of Sociology Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
  • Tehmina Sattar P.hD Scholar/ Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
  • Gulshan Ara M. Phil Scholar, Department of Sociology Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan




Exploring, Individual, Interpersonal, Obstructive, Factors, Contraceptive, Married, Rural, Vicinities


Family Planning is the most effective tool to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. Contraceptive usage is the widely accepted method for birth spacing among married women in reproductive age span. In Pakistan, contraceptive prevalence is low in rural areas as compared to urban milieus. For exploring the present research phenomenon, the ethnographic research design was used to determine the subjective meaning-making of participants about the study phenomenon. Informal Discussions (IDs), N=20 In-Depth Interviews (IDIs), and N=6 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted in two adjacent villages X and Y of Multan, Pakistan. Interview guide and discussion guide were used to explore the responses of the participants through thematic analysis. The present research results illustrated that the causes behind disinclination for contraceptive usage prevailed at two major levels, i.e. individual and interpersonal. The individual-level obstructive factors comprised of age of the married women, education level of husband, the economic cost of contraceptive usage, and adverse effects of contraceptives on the health of married females. Furthermore, the inter-personal level factors comprehended of husband opposition towards contraception usage, and discussion about contraception usage with husband as an anti-normative act. In conclusion, the orthodox, misogynistic, and gender-biased normative structure snatched the reproductive autonomy of married women. Resultantly, the women changed their fertility preferences and avoided birth spacing through contraceptive usage. Government intervention through social media awareness campaigns, provision of monthly incentives, and facilitation of “health card” could be used to ensure high prevalence of contraceptive usage among married women in the study locale.


Agha, S. (2010). Intentions to use contraceptives in Pakistan: implications for behavior change campaigns. BMC public health, 10(1), 1-13.

Alspaugh, A., Barroso, J., Reibel, M., & Phillips, S. (2020). Women's contraceptive perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes: An integrative review of qualitative research. Journal of midwifery & women's health, 65(1), 64-84.

Alspaugh, A., Im, E. O., D. Reibel, M., & Barroso, J. (2021). The Reproductive Health Priorities, Concerns, and Needs of Women in Midlife: A Feminist Poststructuralist Qualitative Analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 31(4), 643-653.

Arif, M. S., & Kamran, I. (2007). Exploring the choices of contraception and abortion among married couples in Tret, rural Punjab, Pakistan. Retrieved from http://www.popcouncil.org.

Asif, M. F., & Pervaiz, Z. (2019). Socio-demographic determinants of unmet need for family planning among married women in Pakistan. BMC public health, 19(1), 1-8.

Asif, M. F., Pervaiz, Z., Afridi, J. R., Abid, G., & Lassi, Z. S. (2021). Role of husband’s attitude towards the usage of contraceptives for unmet need of family planning among married women of reproductive age in Pakistan. BMC Women's Health, 21(1), 1-7.

Ataullahjan, A., Mumtaz, Z., & Vallianatos, H. (2019). Family planning in Pakistan: A site of resistance. Social Science & Medicine, 230, 158-165.

Bajwa, S. K., Bajwa, S. J. S., Ghai, G. K., Singh, K., & Singh, N. (2012). Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perception of the north Indian population toward adoption of contraceptive practices. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health, 24(6), 1002-1012.

Bendassolli, P. F. (2013). Theory building in qualitative research: Reconsidering the problem of induction. In Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research (Vol. 14, No. 1).

Bhutta, Z., Darmstadt, G., Ransom, E. I., Starrs, A. M., & Tinker, A. (2003). Basing newborn and maternal health policies on evidence. Shaping policy for maternal and newborn health: a compendium of case studies. Baltimore: USAID, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, JHPIEGO, 5-12.

Casterline, J. B., Sathar, Z. A., & ul Haque, M. (2001). Obstacles to contraceptive use in Pakistan: A study in Punjab. Studies in family planning, 32(2), 95-110.

Fikree, F. F., Khan, A., Kadir, M. M., Sajan, F., & Rahbar, M. H. (2001). What influences contraceptive use among young women in urban squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan?. International family planning perspectives, 130-136.

Goodkind, D., Lollock, L., Choi, Y., McDevitt, T., & West, L. (2018). The demographic impact and development benefits of meeting demand for family planning with modern contraceptive methods. Global health action, 11(1), 1423861.

Hawkins, S. S., Ghiani, M., Harper, S., Baum, C. F., & Kaufman, J. S. (2020). Impact of state-level changes on maternal mortality: a population-based, quasi-experimental study. American journal of preventive medicine, 58(2), 165-174.

Hennink M, Hutter I, Bailey A. (2020). Qualitative research methods. Sage.

Imran, M., & Yasmeen, R. (2021). Unmet need for family planning in Pakistan: prevalence and factors influencing unmet need among women of reproductive age.

Islam, A. Z., Mostofa, M. G., & Islam, M. A. (2016). Factors affecting unmet need for contraception among currently married fecund young women in Bangladesh. The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care, 21(6), 443-448.

Jain, A. K., & Hardee, K. (2018). Revising the FP Quality of Care Framework in the context of rights?based family planning. Studies in Family Planning, 49(2), 171-179.

Jalal, S. (2011). The lady health worker program in Pakistan—a commentary. European journal of public health, 21(2), 143-144.

Kadir, M. M., Fikree, F. F., Khan, A., & Sajan, F. (2003). Do mothers-in-law matter? Family dynamics and fertility decision-making in urban squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of biosocial science, 35(4), 545-558.

Khan, T., & Ali Khan, R. E. (2010). Fertility behaviour of women and their household characteristics: A case study of Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of human ecology, 30(1), 11-17.

Mahmood, N., & Ringheim, K. (1996). Factors affecting contraceptive use in Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review, 1-22.

Mandiwa, C., Namondwe, B., Makwinja, A., & Zamawe, C. (2018). Factors associated with contraceptive use among young women in Malawi: analysis of the 2015–16 Malawi demographic and health survey data. Contraception and Reproductive Medicine, 3(1), 1-8.

Mohajan, H. K. (2018). Qualitative research methodology in social sciences and related subjects. Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People, 7(1), 23-48.

Mohammed, A., Woldeyohannes, D., Feleke, A., & Megabiaw, B. (2014). Determinants of modern contraceptive utilization among married women of reproductive age group in North Shoa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Reproductive health, 11(1), 1-7.

Nausheen, S., Bhura, M., Hackett, K., Hussain, I., Shaikh, Z., Rizvi, A., & Soofi, S. (2021). Determinants of short birth intervals among married women: a cross-sectional study in Karachi, Pakistan. BMJ open, 11(4), 437-86.

Omer, S., Zakar, R., Zakar, M. Z., & Fischer, F. (2021). The influence of social and cultural practices on maternal mortality: a qualitative study from South Punjab, Pakistan. Reproductive health, 18(1), 1-12.

Ontiri, S., Mutea, L., Naanyu, V., Kabue, M., Biesma, R., & Stekelenburg, J. (2021). A qualitative exploration of contraceptive use and discontinuation among women with an unmet need for modern contraception in Kenya. Reproductive health, 18(1), 1-10.

Pasha, O., Fikree, F. F., & Vermund, S. (2001). Determinants of unmet need for family planning in squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, 16(2), 93-108.

Sattar, T., Ahmad, S., Saleem, U., & Maqsood, F. (2020). Influence of women's reproductive autonomy on sex biased coercive miscarriages in rural establishments of South Punjab, Pakistan. Rawal Medical Journal, 45(2).

Sattar, T., Ahmad, S., Zakar, R., & Maqsood, F. (2021). Watering the Plant in Another’s Courtyard: An Ethnographic Exploration of Daughters’ Devaluation Through Sex-Selected Abortions Among the Rural Married Females in South Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of interpersonal violence, 36(9-10), 4490-4519.

Sattar, T., Usman, A., & Saleem, U. (2019). Socio-reproductive and demographic factors affecting the decision making of ever married fertile females towards want of another child in future: a study of state-based hospitals in Multan. Pakistan Isra Med J, 11(4), 252-256.

Sawatsky, A. P., Ratelle, J. T., & Beckman, T. J. (2019). Qualitative research methods in medical education. Anesthesiology, 131(1), 14-22.

Sensoy, N., Korkut, Y., Akturan, S., Yilmaz, M., Tuz, C., & Tuncel, B. (2018). Factors affecting the attitudes of women toward family planning. Fam Plann, 13, 33.

Tarar, M. A., Khan, Y. N., Ullah, M. Z., Salik, M. H., Akhtar, S., & Sultan, T. (2019). Knowledge and attitude; pregnancy and antenatal care among young agrarian & non-agrarian females in Faisalabad district, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 56(1).

Tiruneh, F. N., Chuang, K. Y., Ntenda, P. A., & Chuang, Y. C. (2016). Factors associated with contraceptive use and intention to use contraceptives among married women in Ethiopia. Women & health, 56(1), 1-22.




How to Cite

Ishfaq, U. ., Sattar, T. ., & Ara, G. . (2022). Exploring the Individual and Interpersonal Obstructive Factors Affecting Contraceptive Usage among Married Fertile Women in Rural Vicinities of Multan District, Pakistan. Review of Economics and Development Studies, 8(1), 01-12. https://doi.org/10.47067/reads.v8i1.421