A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Interpersonal Teacher Behaviour Scale: Validation of the Urdu Translation of Secondary School Students’ Perspectives


  • Rabia Bahoo Lecturer, Department of Education, Government Sadiq College Women University, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
  • Ismat Nasim Lecturer, Department of Economics, Government Sadiq College Women University Bahawalpur, Pakistan
  • Ruqia Shaheen Lecturer, Department of Economics, National University of Modern Languages, Multan Campus, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Latif Javed Lecturer, Department of Education, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar Campus, Pakistan




Students, Validity, Urdu translation, Reliability, Secondary School


The interpersonal teacher behavior’ model has been used in various countries. The validity of this instrument has been shown in different languages except in Pakistan. Therefore, this study aimed to validate students’ perceptions of teachers’ classroom interaction (QTI) in the Urdu version. To attain the purpose of the current investigation the secondary school students in Pakistan were taken as a sample, out of which 52% were boys and 48% girls. The Urdu translation of the QTI was used to accumulate the data. The Confirmatory factor analysis has been run to calculate the accuracy of the QTI structural model. Results confirm the fitness of the QTI structural model and support that Urdu translation of the QTI also applies to Pakistani secondary school students.


Amidon, E. & Hough, J. (Eds) (1967) Interaction analysis: theory, research and application (Addison-Wesley,Reading).

Cha´vez, R. C. (1984) The use of high-inference measures to study classroom climates: a review, Review of Educational Research, 54, 237–261.

Chiew, G. S. (1994). Introducing a model of interpersonal teacher behaviour. Teaching and Learning, 15(1), 30-40.

Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Modern methods for business research, 295(2), 295-336..

Davis, H. A. (2003) Conceptualizing the role and influence of student–teacher relationships on children’s social and cognitive development, Educational Psychologist, 38, 207–234.

Den Brok, P., Fisher, D., Brekelmans, M., Rickards, T., Wubbels, T., Levy, J. & Waldrip, B.(2003) Students’ perceptions of secondary science teachers’ interpersonal style in six countries: a study on the cross national validity of the questionnaire on teacher interaction, paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, Philadelphia, PA, April.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of marketing research, 382-388

Fraser, B. J. & Walberg, H. J. (2005) Research on teacher-student relationships and learning environments: context, retrospect and prospect, International Journal of Educational Research,43, 103–109.

Gaskin, J. (2016a). Data Screening. Gaskination's StatWiki. Retreived from http://statwiki.kolobkreations.com

Gaskin, J. (2016b). Exploratory Factor Analysis. Gaskination's StatWiki. Retreived from http://statwiki.kolobkreations.com

Goh, S. C. & Fraser, B. J. (1996) Validation of an elementary school version of the questionnaire on teacher interaction, Psychological Reports, 79, 522–525.

Goh, S. C. & Fraser, B. J. (1998) Teacher interpersonal behaviour, classroom environment and student outcomes in primary mathematics in Singapore, Learning Environments Research, 1,199–229.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Canonical correlation: A supplement to multivariate data analysis. Multivariate data analysis: a global

perspective. 7th edn. Pearson Prentice Hall Publishing, Upper Saddle River.

Kokkinos, C. M., Charalambous, K. & Davazoglou, A. (2009) Interpersonal teacher behaviour in primary school classrooms: a cross-cultural validation of a Greek translation of the questionnaire on teacher interaction, Learning Environments Research, 12, 101–114.

Koul, R. B. & Fisher, D. L. (2004) cultural and gender differences, student attitudes and achievements. Proceedings of the Western Australian Institute for Educational Research Forum 2004. Available online at: http://www.waier.org.au/forums/2004/koul.html

Kyriakides, L. (2005) Drawing from teacher effectiveness research and research into teacher interpersonal behaviour to establish a teacher evaluation system: a study on the use of student ratings to evaluate teacher behaviour, Journal of Classroom Interaction, 40, 44–66.

Leary, T. (1957) Interpersonal diagnosis of personality (New York, Ronald Press).

Lehmann, D. R. (1988). An alternative procedure for assessing convergent and discriminant validity. Applied Psychological measurement, 12(4), 411-423

Lewin, K., Lippitt, R. & White, R. K. (1939) Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates, Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271–279.

Nunnally, J.C. and Bernstein, I.H. (1994) The Assessment of Reliability. Psychometric Theory, 3, 248-292.

Pianta, R. C. (1999) Enhancing relationships between children and teachers (Washington, American Psychological Association).

Telli, S., den Brok, P. & Cakiroglu, J. (2007) Students’ perceptions of science teachers’ interpersonal behaviour in secondary schools: development of a Turkish version of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction, Learning Environments Research, 10, 115–129.

Urbach, N & Ahlemann ,F (2010) Structural equation modeling in information systems research using Partial Least Squares, Journal of information Technology Theory and Application, 11(2), 05-40.

Withall, J. (1949) The development of a technique for the measurement of social-emotional climate in classrooms, Journal of Experimental Education, 17, 347–361.

Wubbels, T. & Brekelmans, M. (2005) Two decades of research on teacher-student relationships in class, International Journal of Educational Research, 43, 6–24.

Wubbels, T., Cre´ton, H. A. & Hooymayers, H. P. (1985) Discipline problems of beginning teachers: interactional teacher behaviour mapped out, paper presented at Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association, Chicago, IL, March April.

Wubbels, T. & Levy, J. (1991) A comparison of interpersonal behaviour of Dutch and American teachers, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15, 1–18.




How to Cite

Bahoo , R. ., Nasim , I. ., Shaheen, R. . ., & Javed, M. L. . . (2020). A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Interpersonal Teacher Behaviour Scale: Validation of the Urdu Translation of Secondary School Students’ Perspectives. Review of Economics and Development Studies, 6(3), 715-725. https://doi.org/10.47067/reads.v6i3.258