Socio-Economic and Demographic Factors of Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan: A Case Study of Southern Punjab


  • Rashid Ahmad Assistant Professor, School of Economics Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Zahir Faridi Professor , School of Economics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan



Poverty, Households, Logistic Regression, Pakistan


This study aims to explore the socio-economic and demographic determinants of poverty in Southern Punjab by using the cross sectional data consisting of 785 household heads. Binary logistic regression  and ordinary least square method are used for estimation. The findings exhibit that the variables like family system, household size, presence of disease and status of employment of household head are positively and significantly related to  poverty whereas household head age, rural-to-urban migration,  years of schooling,  number of earners, women status of work, remittances, the physical assets value and ownership of house significantly and negatively influence the likelihood of poverty and positively influence the per capita income of the households in Southern Punjab. The study also provides the comparison of regional and division level. It is concluded that DG Khan division is the poorest among all the divisions of the southern Punjab. In DG Khan Division, the households have less education, high dependency ratio. In rural areas of southern Punjab, there is more poverty as compare to urban areas. The rural poverty is due to many factors like high dependency rate, lower level of education, adoption of profession, lower per capita income, dissaving. It is suggested that education should be promoted, employment opportunity should be provided so that dependency rate may be reduced, rural areas should be restructured by provision of basic necessities of life.


Ahmad, M. A. I. (2001). Poverty alleviation and the third world. Pakistan Economic and Social Review, 39(1), 49-56.

Chambers, R. (1995). Poverty and livelihoods: whose reality counts?. Environment and urbanization, 7(1), 173-204.

Chaudhry, I. S., & Malik, S. (2009). The Impact of Socioeconomic and Demographic Variables on Poverty: A Village Study. Lahore Journal of Economics, 14(1), 39-68.

Cheema, A., Khalid, L., & Patnam, M. (2008). The geography of poverty: Evidence from the Punjab. The Lahore Journal of Economics, 13(2008), 163-188.

Datt, G., & Jolliffe, D. (2005). Poverty in Egypt: Modeling and policy simulations. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 53(2), 327-346.

Jamal, H. (2011). Assessing poverty with non-income deprivation indicators: Pakistan, 2008-09. The Pakistan Development Review, 50(4), 913-926.

Jayamohan, M. K., & Kitesa, A. T. (2014). Gender and poverty–an analysis of urban poverty in Ethiopia. Development Studies Research. An Open Access Journal, 1(1), 233-243.

Kanbur, R., & Squire, L. (2001). The evolution of thinking about poverty: exploring the interactions. Frontiers of development economics-The future perspective., 183-226.

Khalid, U., Shahnaz, L., & Bibi, H. (2005). Determinants of poverty in Pakistan: A multinomial logit approach. The Lahore Journal of Economics, 10(1), 65-81.

Lanjouw, P. and M. Ravallion. 1995. "Poverty and Household Size." The Economic Journal, 105, November: 1415-1434.45.

Nisar, R., Anwar, S., Hussain, Z., & Akram, W. (2013). An investigation of poverty, income inequality and their shifters at household level in Pakistan. Journal of Finance and Economics, 1(4), 90-94.

Rahman, R. I., & Islam, R. (2013). Female labour force participation in Bangladesh: trends, drivers and barriers. International Labour Organization, DWT for South Asia and Country Office for India.

Sandefur, G. D., & Sakamoto, A. (1988). American Indian household structure and income. Demography, 25(1), 71-80.

SEN, A. K. (1976): "Poverty: An Ordinal Approach to Measurement," Econometrica, 44, 219-231.

Ul Haq, R., Jahangeer, A., & Ahmad, A. (2015). Out-migration in rural Pakistan: does household poverty status matter?. The Pakistan Development Review, 54 (4), 315-329.

Wratten, E. (1995). Conceptualizing urban poverty. Environment and urbanization, 7(1), 11-38.




How to Cite

Ahmad, R. ., & Faridi, M. Z. . (2020). Socio-Economic and Demographic Factors of Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan: A Case Study of Southern Punjab. Review of Economics and Development Studies, 6(2), 425-438.