The authors submitting and publishing in READS agree to the copyright policy under creative common license 4.0 (Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International). Under this license, the authors published in READS let others remix, tweak, and build upon their work non-commercially. Yet all the other authors using the content of READS are required to cite author(s) and journal and SPCRD Global Publishing information in their work. Moreover, it should be mentioned clearly that the submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration. The submission file should be in Open Office Microsoft Word file format with zero tolerance on Plagiarism.
All manuscripts should be in English language (US English). Research papers should be thoroughly checked by the author(s) to avoid grammatical, typographical and syntax errors. If the manuscript is written in a second or third language, it is recommended to first contact a language reviewing service to avoid grammar and style mistakes. The SPCRD Global Publishing also provide the paid facility of proof-reading/language revision to the authors from the online third party.
Length of paper
The length of paper should be in between (4000-6000 words) including tables and references.
It should include concise, specific, relevant and informative title (avoid abbreviations in the title). Please indicate the full name of author(s) clearly. Present the authors affiliation below the names. Provide the full address of each affiliation, including the country name and correct e-mail address of each author. Please clearly indicate who (corresponding author) is willing to handle correspondence at all stages of peer review and publication.
General rules for text
Please use the following rules for whole text, including abstract, keywords, JEL Codes, headings and references:
Font: Times New Roman; Size: 12
Paragraph Spacing: 12 pt
Line Spacing: fixed – Single
Heading: Times New Roman; Size-12; Bold;
A concise and factual abstract is required (maximum length of 200 words) without any headings. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, data set, methodology, results, major conclusions and usefulness of the study produced in a continuous paragraph.
Immediately after the abstract, provide 4-6 keywords specific to the research article.
Since the JEL classification system was developed for use in the Journal of Economic Literature (JEL), and is a standard method of classifying scholarly literature in the field of economics, therefore, authors are mandatory to write JEL classifications Codes from the website mentioned below:
This section may cover overall background and description of the study, narrow down to research objectives, motivation of the topic, importance/significance, proposed tasks and novelty. Abbreviations should be described in parentheses when first time they appear in the text.
This section may critically describe/evaluate literature relevant to research problem, establish context, compare and contrast the most recent developments in literature and trends. Search gaps after concentrating on thought leaders’ work and linking the research with relevant theories. Authors are flexible in writing literature review to be the part of introduction section.
Data & Methodology
The sources and types of data should clearly be mentioned in this section. List of variables description should also be the part of this section. This section may describe the statistical and econometric techniques applied to the data sets with the explanation of construction of hypotheses, equations, statistical tool and justification in case of quantitative analysis while for qualitative analysis, methodology should clearly be mentioned.
Results and Discussion
This section may cover in depth interpretation through applying higher order thinking skill of analysis and develop novel arguments based on significance of statistical and econometric relations. Establish interconnections among and within variables. Testing hypotheses and comparing with literature.
Conclusion and recommendations
It may be broken into meaningful sections without any heading init, i.e. conclusion, theoretical contribution, practical implications, recommendations, future study directions and limitations.
Present them in order (suitable heading and specific number; Arabic numerals) wherever appropriate in the text. High-resolution (black and white only) graphs must be provided in the main text of the paper.
Present tables with suitable heading and specific number (Arabic numerals) at the appropriate place of the article. Use the Table option of Microsoft Word to create tables. Ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Refer to table number wherever appropriate in the text of the paper.
Acknowledgements/Contribution of Authors
All types of acknowledgements regarding contribution of authors and financial aids/sources of funding in case of research projects should be mentioned at the end of complete article but before the references. The contribution of authors is mandatory to write author-wise only with in one sentence in all submissions. This should be written before the References of the article.
Citations in the text should follow the referencing style used by the American Psychological Association (APA).
Background information, list of respondents, list of countries/companies or questionnaire may be described in this section if required by the editor/reviewer.
In accordance with the guidelines of Higher Education Commission (HEC) Pakistan and Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Review of Economics and Development Studies (READS) observes Zero Tolerance to plagiarism. We use Turnitin for all research papers submitted to detect possible plagiarism. If similarity is more than 20%, the paper is returned back to the author(s) immediately.
Authors are expected to act according to the publication ethics international standards for authors developed by COPE during the 2nd World Conference on Research Integrity in Singapore in 2010. These are summarized as follows:
i. The research being reported should have been conducted in an ethical and responsible manner and should comply with all relevant legislation.
ii. Researchers should present their results clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation.
iii. Researchers should strive to describe their methods clearly and unambiguously so that their findings can be confirmed by others.
iv. Researchers should adhere to publication requirements that submitted work is original, is not plagiarized, and has not been published elsewhere.
v. Authors should take collective responsibility for submitted and published work.
vi. The authorship of research publications should accurately reflect individuals’ contributions to the work and its reporting.
vii. Funding sources and relevant conflicts of interest should be disclosed.
viii. Authors are obliged to participate in the peer review process;
ix. All authors have to contribute significantly to the research addressing a relevant topic in the area of the social sciences research from a multidisciplinary approach;
x. All authors are obliged to provide retractions or corrections of mistakes;
xi. Authors are obliged to provide a list of references including the most relevant and current literature;
xii. Submitted manuscripts should not be under consideration for publication in other journals.
For a detailed account of ethics international standards for authors developed by COPE during the 2nd World Conference on Research Integrity in Singapore in 2010, please access the following document: