Unlocking the Power of Green HRM: Exploring its Impact on Organizational Citizenship Behavior - An Empirical Investigation


  • Farah Noreen Arshad Institute of Communication Studies, The University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan




GHRM Practices, Sustainability-Oriented Behavior, Ability, Motivation and Opportunity (AMO) Theory, Sustainable Development, Emerging Economy


This paper addresses a significant research gap by focusing on the impact of green Human Resource Management (HRM) practices on employees' organizational citizenship behavior in the context of the health industry, particularly within an emerging economy like Pakistan. Despite the increasing recognition of the importance of environmental sustainability and corporate social responsibility, there has been a notable dearth of research in this specific domain, especially in regions like Pakistan, which are often overlooked in the existing literature. To bridge this gap, our study employs the well-established Ability, Motivation, and Opportunity (AMO) framework as the theoretical foundation. We aim to investigate both the direct and interactive effects of green HRM practices, including reward systems, training initiatives, employee involvement, and performance management, on employees' organizational citizenship behavior for the environment. To substantiate our hypotheses and gain insights into their managerial implications, we conducted an empirical study employing a comprehensive questionnaire survey methodology. Through rigorous analysis, we utilized a regression model as an econometric technique to validate our research framework. The findings of our study are illuminating. We provide robust evidence of the direct and interactive impacts of these four key GHRM practices on employees' organizational citizenship behavior with a particular focus on their environmental engagement. Notably, our results highlight that green training emerges as a pivotal instrument in fostering employees' voluntary environmental actions. The practical implications of our research are noteworthy. By showcasing the effectiveness of GHRM practices in shaping employees' voluntary behavior, our study offers valuable insights for the development of future policies and practices in organizations. Moreover, our research underscores the broader societal relevance of GHRM practices in contributing to sustainable development, emphasizing their role in influencing employees' organizational citizenship behavior for the environment.


Adams, J.S. (1965). Inequity in social change.In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology(Vol. 83, pp. 247-260).

Adcroft, A. and Willis, R. (2005), “The (un)intended outcome of public sector performance

Adler, N. J., Doktor, R., & Redding, S. G. (1986). From the atlantic to the pacific century:

Cross-cultural management reviewed. Journal of Management, 12(2), 295–318.

measurement”, International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 18 No. 5,pp. 386-400.

Adler, Paul. 1993. “The New Learning Bureaucracy.” Research in Organizational Behavior. L. L. Cummings and B. Staw, eds. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 111–194.

Agarwal, N. C. (1998). Reward Systems: Emerging Trends and Issues. Canadian Psychology, 39(1), 60-70.

Aguinis, H., & Pierce, C. A. (2008). Enhancing the relevance of organizational behavior by embracing performance management research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29(1), 139-145. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.493

Ahmad, S., (2015). Green human resource management: policies and practices. Cogent Business & Management, 2(1), 1030817.

Ahmad. (2018). The Impact of Human Resources Practices Affecting Organization Citizenship Behaviours with Mediating Job Satisfaction in University. The 3th Annual International Seminar on Transformative Education and Educational Leadership-Unimed.

Alonso-Almeida, M. del M., Fernandez Robin, C., Celemin Pedroche, M. S., & Astorga, P.S. (2017). Revisiting green practices in the hotel industry: A comparison between mature and emerging destinations. Journal of Cleaner Production, 140, 1415–1428.

Alt, E., & Spitzeck, H. (2016). Improving environmental performance through unit-level organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment: A capability perspective. Journal of Environmental Management, 182, 48–58.

Altmann, S., Falk, A., & Wibral, M. (2012). Promotions and Incentives: The Case Of Multistage Elimination Tournaments. Journal of Labor Economics,30(1), 149-174. Retrieved May, 2015, from http://www.cens.uni-bonn.de

Armstrong M. and Baron A. (1998). Performance Management: The New Realities. London: CIPD.

Artz, B. (2010). Fringe Benefits and Job Satisfaction. International Journal of Manpower, 31(6), 626-644. Retrieved June 4, 2015, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1108//01437721011073346

Arulrajah, A.A., Opatha, H.H.D.N.P., & Nawaratne, N.N.J. (2015). Green human resource management practices: a review. Sri Lankan Journal of Human Resource Management. 15, 10-16.

Arulrajah, A.A., Opatha, H.H.D.N.P., Nawaratne, N.N.J., 2016. Green human resource management practices: a review. Sri Lankan J. Hum. Resour. Manag. 5 (1).

Bakker, B. & Schaufeli, W. B. (2008).Positive organizational behavior: engaged employees in flourishing organizations.Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29, 147–154.

Bansal, P. & Roth, K. (2000). Why companies go green: a model of ecological responsiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 43(4), 717–736.

Bhananker SM, Culler BF. Resident work hours (2003). Curr. Opin. Anaesthesiol., 16:603-619

Bies, R. J., & Moag, J. F. (1986). Interactional justice: Communication criteria of fairness. Research on Negotiations in Organizations, 1, 43–55.

Bin, Bilal Saeed, Bilal Afsar, Shakir Hafeez, Imran Khan, Muhammad Tahir, Muhammad Asim Afridi. (2018). “Promoting Employee’s Proenvironmental Behaviour Through Green Human Resource Management Practices”.

Bissing-Olson, M.J., Iyer, A., Fielding, K.S., Zacher, H., 2013. Relationships between daily affect and pro-environmental behavior at work: the moderating role of pro-environmental attitude. J. Organ. Behav. 34, 156e175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.1788

Black, S., Briggs, S. and Keogh, W. (2001), “Service quality performance measurement in public/private sectors”, Managerial Auditing Journal, Vol. 16 No. 7, pp. 400-5.

Blanche, M. T., Durrheim, K., & Painter, D. (2006). Research in practice: Applied methods for the social sciences. Juta and Company Ltd

Bluestone, Barry, and Irving BLUESTONE. 1992. Negotiating the Future: A Labor Perspective on American Business. New York: Basic Books.

Boiral, O. (2009). Greening the corporation through organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 87(2), 221-236.

Boiral, O., Paill_e, P., 2012. Organizational citizenship behaviour for the environment: measurement and validation. J. Bus. Ethics 109, 431e445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-011-1138-9.

Boiral, O., Raineri, N., & Talbot, D. (2016). Managers’ Citizenship Behaviors for the Environment: A Developmental Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 1- 15.

Brown, S. P. (1996). A meta-analysis and review of organizational research on job involvement. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 235-255.

Bunge, J., Cohen-Rosenthal, E., Ruiz-Quintanilla, A., 1996. Employee participation in pollution reduction: preliminary analysis of the toxics release inventory.

J. Clean. Prod. 4, 9e16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-6526(96)00006-6.

Bushardt, S. C., Glascoff, D. W., & Doty, D. H. (2011). Organizational culture, formal reward structure and effective strategy implementation: A conceptual model. Journal of Organizational Culture Communication and Culture, 15, 57–70.

Buysse, K., Verbeke, A., 2003. Proactive environmental strategies: a stakeholder management perspective. Strat. Manag. J. 24, 453e470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.299.

Byrne, Z. S. (2005). Fairness reduces the negative effects of organizational politics on turnover intentions, citizenship behavior and job performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 20, 175–200.

Cardy, R. L. (2004). Performance management: Concepts, skills, and exercises. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Carlin, T. (2004), “Output-based management and the management of performance: insights from the Victorian experience”, Management Accounting Research, Vol. 15, pp. 267-83.

Carollo, L., J., Guerci, M. 2018. Employee control, ethics and politics – GHRM in context. In: Renwick, D., M. (Eds.) Contemporary Developments in Green Human Resource Management Research, Routledge, London, pp. 97-115.

Carvalho, J., Fernandes, M., Lambert, V. and Lapsley, I. (2006), “Measuring fire service performance: a comparative study”, International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 19 No. 2, pp. 165-79.

Chan, E. S. W., & Hawkins, R. (2012). Application of EMSs in a hotel context: A case study. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(2), 405–418.

Chan, E.S., Hon, A.H., Chan, W. and Okumus, F. (2014), “What drives employees’ intentions toimplement green practices in hotels? The role of knowledge, awareness, concern and ecological behaviour”, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 40 No. 2, pp. 20-28.

Daily, B. F., Bishop, J. W., & Govindarajulu, N. (2009). A conceptual model for organizational citizenship behavior directed toward the environment. Business & society, 48(2), 243-256.

Daniels, K., & Bailey, A. (1999). Strategy development processes and participation in decision making: Predictors of role stressors. Journal of Applied Management Studies, 8, 26-43.

Darnall, N., Jolley, G.J., Handfield, R., 2008. Environmental management systems and green supply chain management: complements for sustainability? Bus. Strategy Environ. 17, 30e45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bse.557

De Groot, J. I. M., & Steg, L. (2010). Relationships between value orientations, self-determined motivational types and pro-environmental behavioural intentions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(4), 368–378.

Esty, D., & Winston, A. (2009). Green to gold: How smart companies use environmental strategy to innovate, create value, and build competitive advantage. John Wiley & Sons.

Evans, J. (2004), “An exploratory study of performance measurement systems and relationships with performance results”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 22, pp. 219-32.

Floyd, S. & Wooldridge, B. (1992). Middle management involvement in strategy and its association with strategic type: A research note. Strategic Management Journal, 13, 153–167.

Freund A (2005). Commitment and job satisfaction as predictor of turnover intentions among welfare workers. Adm. Soc. Work, 29(2): 5- 21.

Garavan, T. N., Costine, P., & Heraty, N. (1995), Training and development in Ireland: context,policy, and practice, Cengage Learning EMEA.

George, J.M., &Bettenhausen, K. (1990). Understanding prosocial behavior, sales performance, and turnover: A Group-level analysis in a service context.Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 698-709. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.6.698.

Hrebiniak, L. (2008). Making strategy work, overcoming the obstacles to effective execution. Ivey Business Journal, 72, 1–6.

Huffman, A. H., Watrous-Rodriguez, K., Henning, J., & Berry, J. (2009). Working through environmental issues: The role of the Io psychologist. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 47(2), 27.

Ilgen, D.R., & Feldman, J.M. (1983). Performance appraisal: A process focus.In B. Staw & L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behaviour (Vol. 5). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Ismail Khan, Muhammad Shahid, Samina Nawab, & Syed Sikander Wali. (2013). Influence of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards on Employee Performance: The Banking Sector of Pakistan. Academic Research International, 4(1), 282-291. Retrieved from http://www.savap.org.pk

Lamm, E., Tosti-Kharas, J., & Williams, E. G. (2013). Read this article, but don’t print it: Organizational citizenship behavior toward the environment. Group & Organization Management, 38(2), 163-197.

Lu, H., While, A. E., Barriball, K. L., 2005. Job satisfaction among nurses: a literature review. International journal of nursing studies, 42, 2, 211-227.

Madi, M., Pan Lee Ching & Yusliza, Y. (2015). Green training and development: a strategic approach for organizational sustainability. Conference on Green Human Resource Management (CGHRM) 2015, 108-124.

Moorman, R. H., Blakely, G. L., & Niehoff, B. P. (1998). Does Perceived Organizational Support Mediate the Relationship Between Procedural Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour? Academy of Management Journal, 41(3), 351-357.

Mujtaba, B. G., & Shuaib, S. (2010). An equitable total rewards approach to pay for performance management. Journal of Management Policy and Practice, 11, 111–121.

Murray A, Montgomery JE, Chang H, Rogers WH, Inui T, Safran DG (1986). Doctor Discontent A Comparison of Physician Satisfaction in Different Delivery System Settings, 1986 and 1997. J. Gen. Int. Med., 16(7): 452-459(8).

Nadia Sajjad Hafiza, Syed Sohai Shah, Humera Jamsheed, & Khalid Zaman. (2011). Relationship between Rewards and Employee’s Motivation in the Non-Profit Organizations of Pakistan. Business Intelligence Journal, 4(2), 327-333. Retrieved April, 2015, from http://www.saycocorporativo.com

Neely, A., Gregory, M. and Platts, K. (1995), “Performance measurement system design: a literature review and research agenda”, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 15 No. 4, pp. 80-116.

Nejati, M., Rabiei, S., Jabbour, C.J.C., 2017. Envisioning the invisible: understanding the synergy between green human resource management and green supply chain management in manufacturing firms in Iran in light of the moderating effect of employees' resistance to change. J. Clean. Prod. 168, 163–172.

Newman, A., & Sheikh, A. Z. (2012). Organizational rewards and employee commitment: A Chinese study. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 27, 71–89.

Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome: Lexington books/DC heath and com.

Ornoy, H. (2010). ‘Correlates and employees’ attitudes towards participation in decisionmaking. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 9, 7–15.

Ouchi, W. G. (1979). A conceptual framework for the design of organizational control mechanisms. Management Science, 25, 833–848.

Ozutku, H. (2012). The Influence of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards on Employee Results: An Empirical Analysis in Turkish Manufacturing Industry. Business and Economics Research Journal, 3(3), 29-48. Retrieved April, 2015, from http://www.berjournal.com

Paillé, P., & Boiral, O. (2013). Pro-environmental behavior at work: Construct validity and determinants. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 36, 118-128.

Paille, P., Boiral, O., & Chen, Y. (2013). Linking environmental management practices and organizational citizenship behaviour for the environment: A social exchange perspective. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(18), 3552–3575.

Paill_e, P., Mejía-Morelos, J.H., March_e-Paill_e, A., Chen, C.C., Chen, Y., 2015. Corporate greening, exchange process among co-workers, and ethics of care: an empirical study on the determinants of pro-environmental behaviors at coworkers-level. J. Bus. Ethics. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-2537-0

Paill_e, P., Raineri, N., 2015. Linking perceived corporate environmental policies and employees eco-initiatives: the influence of perceived organizational support and psychological contract breach. J. Bus. Res. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.jbusres.2015.02.021.

Pham, N. T., Tu?ková, Z., & Jabbour, C. J. C. (2019). Greening the hospitality industry: How do green human resource management practices influence organizational citizenship behavior in hotels? A mixed-methods study. Tourism Management, 72, 386-399.

Pinzone, M., Guerci, M., Lettieri, E., & Redman, T. (2016). Progressing in the change journey towards sustainability in healthcare: the role of ‘Green’HRM. Journal of Cleaner Production, 122, 201-211.

Topcic, M., Baum, M., Kabst, R., 2015. Are high-performance work practices related to individually perceived stress? A job demands-resources perspective. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27, 1, 45-66

Train, L. and Williams, C. (2000), “Evolution of quality management: British Benefit Enquiry

Line”, International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 13 No. 6, pp. 526-39.

Tremblay, M., Cloutier, J., Simard, G., Chenevert, D., & Vandenberghe, C. (2010). The role of HRM practices, procedural justice, organizational support and trust in organizational commitment and in-role and extra-role performance. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21, 405–433.

Tsai, C.-C., Stritch, J. M., & Christensen, R. K. (2016). Eco-Helping and Eco-Civic Engagement in the Public Workplace. Public Performance & Management Review, 40(2), 336-360.

Uddin, M. (2022). Leveraging Green Human Resource Management Practices towards Environmental Performance: An Empirical Evidence from the Manufacturing Context in Emerging Economy. International Journal of Business and Society, 23(1), 585-603.

Unsworth, KL, Dmitrieva, A, Adriasola, E., 2013. Changing behaviour: Increasing the effectiveness of workplace interventions in creating pro-environmental behaviour change. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34, 2, 211-229

Usha Priya, & Shakti Eshwar. (2014). Rewards, Motivation and Job Satisfaction of Employees in Commercial Banks- An Investigative Analysis. International Journal of Academic Research and Social Sciences, 4(4), 70-78. Retrieved May, 2015, from http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v4-i4/754

Uddin, M. (2022). Leveraging Green Human Resource Management Practices towards Environmental Performance: An Empirical Evidence from the Manufacturing Context in Emerging Economy. International Journal of Business and Society, 23(1), 585-603.

Zoogah D. The dynamics of Green HRM behaviors: A cognitive social information processing approach. Zeitschrift fur Personalforschung, 2011; 25:117-139.

Zutshi, A., & Sohal, A. S. (2004). Adoption and maintenance of environmental management systems: Critical success factors. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 15(4), 399–419. doi:10.1108/1477783041054014.




How to Cite

Arshad, F. N. . (2023). Unlocking the Power of Green HRM: Exploring its Impact on Organizational Citizenship Behavior - An Empirical Investigation. Review of Economics and Development Studies, 9(3), 147-163. https://doi.org/10.47067/reads.v9i3.496