Farm Households’ Willingness to Pay for Forestation Based Soil Conservation Program on Communal Land in Bagh District, Kashmir

Authors

  • SumaraAjmal Department of Agricultural & Applied Economics, the University of Agriculture Peshawar Pakistan
  • Syed Attaullah Shah Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural & Applied Economics
  • Muhammad Ibrahim Lecturer, Department of Agricultural & Applied Economics, Amir Muhammad Khan Campus Mardan, Pakistan
  • Zahoor Ul Haq Dean, Faculty of Social Sciences, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26710/reads.v4i1.206

Keywords:

Agriculture, Soil Erosion, Small land holders, Pakistan, Northern Areas, Kashmir

Abstract

This study investigated farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for a forestation based soil conservation program on communal land in district Bagh, Kashmir. Data were collected from a random sample of 180 farm households on a well-structuredquestionnaire possessed with a contingent valuation question. Majority of the sampled farm households reported moderate to high water erosion problem and their mean annual WTP for the soil conservation program was $34. The foremost beneficiary of the program were expected to be the farm households facing high erosion, and that’s why their mean stated WTP was significantly high than others. Other important determinants of WTP were farm-size, household’s income and head’s education, farming experience, perceptions about soil erosion and contact with extension agents. The aggregate WTP for a farm household were calculated to be $214 for 10 years. This suggests that sufficient funds can be generated from local stakeholders for the implementation of the soil conservation program.

References

Arrow, K., Solow, R., Portney, P. R., Leamer, E. E., Radner, R., & Schuman, H. (1993). Report of the NOAA panel on contingent valuation. Federal register, 58(10), 4601-4614. Carson, R. T., &Hanemann, W. M. (2005).Contingent valuation. Handbook of environmental economics, 2, 821-936.

Cochran, W. G. (1977). Sampling techniques (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Coxhead, I., andOygard, R. (2008).Land degradation. Copenhagen Consensus. Gebremariam, G. G., Edriss, A. K., Maganga, A. M., &Terefe, A. T. (2013). Labor as a Payment Vehicle for Valuing Soil Conservation Practices in a Subsistence Economy: Case of Adwa Woreda in Ethiopia. American Journal of Economics, 3(6), 283-290. Hou, L. (2012). Soil degradation in China: Implications for agricultural sustainability, food security and the environment (Doctoral dissertation, Colorado State University). Janku, J., Kucerova.D., Houska, J., Kozak, J., andRubesova, A. (2014).The evaluation of degraded land by application of the contingent method.Soil and Water Res., 9(4): 214–223. Kangalawe, R. Y. (2012). Land Degradation, Community Perceptions and Environmental Management Implications in the Drylands of Central Tanzania. In Sustainable Development-Authoritative and Leading Edge Content for Environmental Management.InTech. Loomis, J., Lockwood, M., &DeLacy, T. (1993).Some empirical evidence on embedding effects in contingent valuation of forest protection. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 25(1), 45-55. Meseret, D. (2014). Determinants of farmers’ perception of soil and water conservation practices on cultivated land in Ankesha District, Ethiopia. Agricultural Science, Engineering and Technology Research, 2(5), 1-9. Shah, S. A. (2014). Valuation of freshwater resources and sustainable management in poverty dominated areas (Doctoral dissertation, Colorado State University. Libraries). Shah, S. A., Hoag, D. L., & Davies, S. (2016). Household preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for freshwater quality improvement in Pakistan’s Swat River Valley. Environment, development and sustainability, 18(4), 1081-1093. Shah, S. A., Hoag, D. L., & Loomis, J. (2017). Is willingness to pay for freshwater quality improvement in Pakistan affected by payment vehicle? Donations, mandatory government payments, or donations to NGO’s. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, 19(4), 807-818. Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R. A., Ullah, Z., & Ahmad, T. (2011).Anthropogenic pressure on the western Himalayan moist temperate forests of Bagh, Azad Jammu & Kashmir. Pak. J. Bot, 43(1), 695-703. Singh, A. K., and Singh, S. K. (2011).In strategies for arresting land degradation in South Asian Countries. Eds. DipakSarkar, Abdul Kalam Azad, SK Singh, NasrenAkter. SAARC Agriculture Center. Kidane, T., Beshah, T., &Aklilu, A. (2014). Determinants of physical soil and water conservation practices in Ethiopia’s semi-arid tropics: the case of Bati District. Soc Basic Sci Res Rev, 2, 525-541. Teklewold, H., &Köhlin, G. (2011).Risk preferences as determinants of soil conservation decisions in Ethiopia. journal of soil and water conservation, 66(2), 87-96. Zhongmin, X., Loomis, J., Zhiqiang, Z., &Hamamura, K. (2006).Evaluating the performance of different willingness to pay question formats for valuing environmental restoration in rural China. Environment and Development Economics, 11(5), 585-601. Zia, M. S., Muhmood, T., Baig, M. D., and Aslam, M., (2004).Land and environmental degradation and

Downloads

Published

2020-07-25

How to Cite

SumaraAjmal, Syed Attaullah Shah, Muhammad Ibrahim, & Zahoor Ul Haq. (2020). Farm Households’ Willingness to Pay for Forestation Based Soil Conservation Program on Communal Land in Bagh District, Kashmir. Review of Economics and Development Studies, 4(1), 31-38. https://doi.org/10.26710/reads.v4i1.206