Analysis of Factors Influencing Household Human Capital Investment Behavior in Conflict Zones: A Case Study of District Swat
Keywords:Human Capital, Investment, Conflict Zones, Terrorism, Swat
Development of human capital, as part of public policy, is critical for sustainable socio-economic development of a country. This study analyzed the factors that influenced the household behaviour of spending on human resources in terrorism affected region of district Swat. The uniqueness of the current study is to study human capital behaviour in the study area. The econometric technique (OLS) was applied to analyze the data. The study found that there are direct and indirect relationship exists among the targeted variables. It was found that health and education status is negatively affected by the incidence of terrorism. The education system drastically affected and the enrolment rate at the primary, secondary and post-secondary levels have exceptionally declined because of the aftermath of terrorism episode between 2002 and 2016. Health, education facilities and infrastructure are deteriorating posing a threat to long term development. The effective policies of the Government (investment in human capital) and eradicating terrorism (military actions) is a demanding subject of matter for the sake of development in the area.
Abbas, Q. (2000) The Role of Human Capital in Economic Growth: A Comparative Study of Pakistan and India, The Pakistan Development Review 39:4, 451-473.
Fredickson, B. (1991) An Analysis of the Student Enrollment and flow Statistics. Population and Human Resource Department, The World Bank, Washington D.C
Government of Pakistan (2003) Investing in Human Capital. Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, 66-95.
Jere R. B. (1987) Human Resource Led Development. New Delhi, India: ARTEP/ILO.
Jere R. B. (1990) Investing in Female Education for Development: Women in Development Strategy for 1990s in Asia and the near East. Williamstown: Williams College.
Jere R. B., & Schneider, R. (1993) An International Perspective on Pakistani Human Capital Investments in the last Quarter Century, The Pakistan Development Review 32:1, 1-68.
Jere R, B., & Anil, B. D. (1998) Health and Nutrition. Hand Book On Economic Development, Vol. 1 Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Co. 631-711.
Khan, A. (2018). How does terrorism measurement matter of state-level of a country? Evidence from Islamic countries. Qual Quant. 52:883–898.
Khan, A., Ruiz-Estrada, M. A., & Yusof, Z. (2016): How Terrorism Affects the Economic Performance: The Case of Pakistan. Qual Quant, 50(2), pp 867-883
Khan, F (2019) Exploring the effect of terrorism on education sector: A case of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, City University Research Journal, Vol. 19, Issue 2, 51-68.
Lawrence, H. S. (1992) Investing in All the People. The Pakistan Development Review 31:4, 367-404.
Mimoun, B., Mohamed., R., & Asma (2008): Human capital investment and growth: A dynamic education model. Journal of Business Affairs 2(1), pp 1-22.
Nelson, R.R. and Phelps, E. S. (1966) Investment in Humans, Technological Diffusion, and Economic Growth. American Economic Review, 56, 69-75.
Neilson, E. (2020) "Essays on the Determinants of Human Capital Investment". All Dissertations. 2627. https://tigerprints.clemson.edu/all_dissertations/2627
Romer, P. M. (1986) Increasing Returns and Long Run Growth. Journal of Political Economy 94, 1002-1037
Rosen, S. (1976) A Theory of Life Learning. Journal of Political Economy 84, PP 545-567
Ruiz-Estrada, M. A., Park, D., Kim, J. S., & Khan, A. (2015). The Economic Impact of Terrorism: A New Model and Its Application to Pakistan. Journal of Policy Modeling, pp 204-214
Siddiqui, R, Afridi, U., & Haq, R. (1995) Determinants of Expenditure on Health in Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review 31:4,PP 959-970
Schultz, W. T. (1961) Investment in Human Capital. American Economic Review 51, 1-17
Shahid, H. A. (2003) Economic Planning of Pakistan, Ilmi Kitab Khana, Urdu Bazar Lahore. 255-296.
Summers, H. Lawrence (1992) Investing in All the People. The Pakistan Development Review 31:4, 367-404.
Uzama, H. (1965) Optimal Technical Change in an Aggregate Model of Economic Growth. International Economic Review 6, 18-31.
UNESCO (1990) Annual Yearbook, Paris: UNESCO
World Bank Development Report, 2003, Washington: World Bank
Yamauchi, F. et al (2009) Natural disasters, self-insurance, and human capital investment: evidence from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Malawi, IFPRI Discussion paper 00881.
Yang, C.-H., Lin, C.-H. and Ma, D. (2010), R&D, Human Capital Investment and Productivity: Firm-level Evidence from China's Electronics Industry. China & World Economy, 18: 72–89.