Perceptions of Special Education Teachers on the Internal Efficacy of Their Institutions: A Comparative Study


  • Muhammad Zahid Ph. D Scholar, Department of Special Education, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Samina Ashraf Ph. D &Post Doc., Department of Special Education, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan



Educational Institutions, Internal Efficacy, Teachers’ Perception


Special education institutions are providing services to meet the unique needs of special students. Internal efficacy of any institution determines its effectiveness in terms of its outcomes. The current study was designed to explore the internal efficacy of special education institutions. The population of the study comprised of teachers teaching in the special education institution of the Lahore city. Sample of the study consisted of 200 teachers randomly selected from public and private sector special education institutions, currently performing their duties in the Lahore city. The study was quantitative in its nature conducting with descriptive research design. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect the data from the teachers after getting permission from its author. Initially, the questionnaire was piloted on a small number of participants to ensure its reliability. That was confirmed through Cronbach alpha (.750). After ensuring ethical considerations, researchers collected data by themselves from the teachers. The data were analyzed using SPSS. Results of independent sample t-test show the statistically significant difference between the public and private sector institutions’ internal efficacy. The internal efficacy of public sector special education institutions was better as compared to private sector special education institutions. Majority of the special education teachers serving in public sector institutes ranked the institutional communication, working environment, quality of education and professional support as major determined of internal efficacy of their institutions. The study has recommended that the private sector special education institutions need to enhance their internal efficacy.


Adeleke, F. F. (2011). Study of the internal efficiency of junior public and private secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria”, Unpublished Master in Education Dissertation, University of Ado Ekiti, Nigeria.

Adeyemi, T. O. (2008). Organizational climate and teachers’ job performance in primary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria: An analytical survey. Asian Journal of Information Technology, 7(4), 138-145.

Adeyemi, T. O. (2012). School variables and internal efficiency of secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 2(3), 205-205.

Adeyemi1, T. O., & Adu, E. T. (2012). Teachers’ Quality and Internal Efficiency in Primary Schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. American Journal of Economics, 2(5), 87-95 DOI: 10.5923/j.economics.20120205.04.

Ahmad, I., Rauf, M., Imdadullah, & Zeb, A. (2012). Implementation gaps in educational policies of Pakistan: Critical analysis of problems and way forward. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(21), 240-245.

Akinloye, G. M., Adu, K. O., & Adu, E. O. (2015). A comparative analysis of students’ performance in economics in private and public secondary schools in Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences, 44(3), 144-151.

Akinwumiju, A. (1995). Educational planning statistics and models. Ibadan.

Awan, A. G., & Zia, A. (2015). Comparative analysis of public and private educational institutions: A case study of district Vehari-Pakistan. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(16), 122-130.

Ayodele, J. B. (2005). Fundamentals of systems analysis in education. Bolabay publications.

Bless, C., & Higson-Smith, C. (2000). Fundamentals of social research methods. Lusaka: Juta Education (Pty) Ltd.

Bryman, A. (2012). Social research methods (4th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Cohen, L., & Duun, A. (2011). Research method in education, (7th Ed). London: Routledge.

Connelly, L. M. (2008). Pilot studies. Medsurg Nursing, 17(6), 411-412.

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches (2nd Ed.). Sage.

Dansey, R. S. (2004). Influence of teachers’ empowerment on teachers organizational commitments. Teaching and Teachers Education Journal, 20(3), 277-299.

Dwaikat, N.Y. (2020). A comprehensive model for assessing the quality in higher education institutions. The TQM Journal. Available on

Faize, F. A. (2011). Problems and prospects of science education at secondary level in Pakistan. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, faculty of social sciences, international Islamic university, Islamabad-Pakistan.

Galos, S., Aldridge, J.M.(2020). Relationships between learning environments and self-efficacy in primary schools and differing perceptions of at-risk students. Learning Environ Res.

Government of Pakistan (1959). Report of the commission on national education. Karachi: Government of Pakistan Press.

Government of Pakistan (1986 a). National policy for the education and rehabilitation of the disabled. Pakistan directorate general of special education, Islamabad.

Government of Pakistan (1986). National policy for rehabilitation of the disabled, Pakistan ministry of health, special education and social welfare, Islamabad.

Government of Pakistan (1999). The national policy for special education, Pakistan ministry of women development, social welfare and special education, Islamabad.

Government of Pakistan (2002). National policy for persons with disabilities, ministry of women development, social welfare and special education. Islamabad.

Hameed, A., Manzoor, A., (2016). Defeating inequalities in school access: A case of children with disabilities in Pakistan. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 16(1), 345-350.

Haq, S. (2015). Public policy process in Pakistan: Key causes of public policies failures. Journal of Economic and Social Thought, 2(2), 127-131.

Hassan, M. Ul. (2019). Teachers’ self-efficacy: Effective indicator towards students’ success in medium of education perspective. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 77(5), 667-679.

Hassan, M. Ul., & Akbar, R. A. (2020). Locus of control: Teachers’ neglected attribute towards students’ achievement scores in facing diverse socioeconomic status. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 78(2), 282-300.

Imran, M. (2008). A comparative study of quality of education in public and private secondary schools of Punjab, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Institute of education and research. Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Iqbal, H. M., & Mahmood, N. (2000). Science teacher education in Pakistan. In S. K. Abell (Ed.), Science teacher education: An international perspective, 75-92. Boston: Kluwer.

Jaffer, N. (2000). Problems of education in Pakistan. Royal Book Company: Karachi, Pakistan.

Kerr, T. (2009). The role of school principal. Titusville Area School District. Titusville: USA.

Khan, M. A., Hussain, A., Hussain, J., & Khan, M. H. (2020). Effect of Performance Appraisal on Employees’ Satisfaction: A Case Study of University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Review of Applied Management & Social Science, 3(2), 131-140.

Lockheed, M. E., & Hanushek, E. (1998). Improving educational efficiency in developing countries. What do we know? Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 18(1), 21-38.

McMillan, J. H., & Schumacher, S. (2001). Research in education, (5th Ed.). Longman.

Ncube, J. N. (2004). Managing the Quality of Education in Zimbabwe: The Internal Efficiency of Rural Day Secondary Schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of South Africa, Zimbabwe.

Olatoun, A. A., (2012). Resource utilization and internal efficiency in Nigerian secondary schools: Implications for socio problems of education. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 4(1), 23-30.

Olubor, R. O. (2004). A comparative analysis of the internal efficiency of public junior secondary education of two selected states in Nigeria. Journal of Educational Foundations and Managements, 4(1), 194-196.

Ramberg, J., Laftman, B.S., Almquist, Y.B., &Modin, B.(2019).School effectiveness and students’ perceptions of teachers caring: A multilevel study. Improving Schools,22(1),55-71.

Skaalvik, C. (2020). School principal self-efficacy for instructional leadership: relations with engagement, emotional exhaustion and motivation to quit. Social Psychology of Education, 1(2),1-20.

Seiler, M., Jo, A. G., Jones, J. T., Landy, B., Olds, S., & Young, P. (2007). Indicators of efficiency & effectiveness in elementary & secondary education spending. Frankfort, Kentucky: Legislative Research Commission, USA.

Weingarten, R. (2012). The role of teachers in school improvement: Lessons from the field. Harvard Law & Policy Review, 6(1), 9-38.

Yasmin, T., Nadeem, M., Siddique, G. K., & Ali, M. S. Z. (2020). The Effect of Teachers’ Language Speaking Anxiety on their Performance in English. Review of Education, Administration & LAW, 3(2), 285-291.

Yunas, M. (2014). Developing a framework for promoting internal efficiency of secondary schools, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Faculty of arts, social sciences and education, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar-Pakistan.




How to Cite

Zahid, M. ., & Ashraf, S. . (2020). Perceptions of Special Education Teachers on the Internal Efficacy of Their Institutions: A Comparative Study. Review of Economics and Development Studies, 6(4), 811-820.