Analysis of Alignment between National Curriculum of Education and Textbooks at Higher Secondary Level in Punjab-Pakistan


  • Sobia Saher Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Education, The Islamia University Bahawalpur, Pakistan
  • Najam-ul- Kashif Assistant Professor, Department of Education, The Islamia University Bahawalpur, Pakistan



National Curriculum, Education Textbooks, Alignment, Higher Secondary Level


This study was conducted to identify the degree to which the objectives of higher secondary level national curriculum of Education were aligned with the textbooks in Punjab- Pakistan. The study was done by reviewing the national curriculum of Education and Textbooks for grade XI and XII so as to find the degree of alignment. The quantitative analysis was done by using Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC) method. In quantitative analysis the content of the textbook was analyzed with respect to student learning outcomes [SLOs] given in the curriculum. It was found that content in the Education-XI and XII textbook were not aligned to a desired level. Alignment Index (AI) of Education XI and XII textbook were 0.61 and 0.50 respectively. This misalignment was not same for all the categories of cognitive domain. The outcomes of the study revealed that there were some gap between curriculum and textbooks. The study lays great implications in the sense that it provides feedback to curriculum developers and textbook writers to consider alignment between curriculum objectives and textbook content. The study suggests adequate training for the curriculum and textbook developers to ensure alignment between national curriculum and textbooks.


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How to Cite

Saher, S. ., & Kashif, N.- ul-. (2020). Analysis of Alignment between National Curriculum of Education and Textbooks at Higher Secondary Level in Punjab-Pakistan . Review of Economics and Development Studies, 6(3), 687-702.