Impact of Passive Leadership on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Turnover Intentions; Mediating Effect of Organizational Interpersonal Trust


  • Omer Azam Program Incharge, Virtual Campus Comsats University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Hafiz Ghufran Ali Khan Assistant Professor, Faculty of Management Sciences, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Asif Khan Assistant Professor, Departmrnt of Education Karakoram International University, Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan
  • Abdul Zahid Khan Assistant Professor, Department of Technology Management, Faculty of Management Sciences, International Islamic University, Islamabad Pakistan



Passive Leadership, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Turnover Intentions, Organizational Interpersonal Trust


This study investigates the impact of passive leadership on organizational citizenship behavior and turnover intentions with the mediating effect of organizational interpersonal trust. Data has been collected from a sample of 180 working at managerial levels in public and private sector universities based in Islamabad. Findings of the current study confirms that passive leadership is negatively associated with organizational citizenship behavior and employee turnover intentions and the mediating role of organizational interpersonal trust confirms the partial mediation between these relationships. The study provided with new insights into the body of knowledge and also provided with practical implications. Limitations of the current study along with the future directions of research also discussed at the end.


Adeel, M. M., Khan, H. G. A., Zafar, N., &Rizvi, S. T. (2018). Passive leadership and its relationship with organizational justice: verifying mediating role of affect-based trust. Journal of Management Development, 37(2), 212-223.

Alzubi, Y. Z. W. (2018). Turnover intentions in Jordanian Universities: The role of leadership behaviour, organizational commitment and organizational culture. International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences, 5(1), 177-192.

Appelbaum, S., Bartolomucci, N., Beaumier, E., Boulanger, J., Corrigan, R., Dore, I., ...&Serroni, C. (2004). Organizational citizenship behavior: a case study of culture, leadership and trust. Management decision, 42(1), 13-40.

Armstrong, M. (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (10 ed.). London: Kogan Page.

Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M., & Jung, D. I. (1999).Re?examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership.Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 72(4), 441-462.

Balkan, M. O., Serin, A. E., &Soran, S. (2014). The relationship between trust, turnover intentions and emotions: An application. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 10(2).

Balkan, M. O., Serin, A. E., &Soran, S. (2014). The relationship between trust, turnover intentions and emotions: An application. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 10(2).

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations.Collier Macmillan.

Bovee, C. L. Thill, John V.-Dovel, George P.-Wood, Marian B. (1993). Management.International edition.

Chaudhry, A. Q., &Javed, H. (2012).Impact of transactional and laissez faire leadership style on motivation.International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(7).

Cole, G. A. (2004). Management theory and practice.Cengage Learning EMEA.

Compeer, N., Smolders, M., & De Kok, J. (2005). Scale effects in HRM Research; a discussion of current HRM research from an SME perspective. EIM Scales Paper N, 200501.

Daniel Muijs, (2011) "Leadership and organisational performance: from research to prescription?" , International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 25 Issue: 1, pp.45-60,

Den Hartog, D. N., Schippers, M. C., &Koopman, P. L. (2002). The impact of leader behaviour on trust in management and co-workers. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 28(4), 29-34.

Dirks, K.T. and Ferrin, D.L. (2002), “Trust in leadership: meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 87 No. 4, pp. 611-628.

Dubey, R., Gunasekaran, A., Altay, N., Childe, S. J., & Papadopoulos, T. (2016).Understanding employee turnover in humanitarian organizations. Industrial and Commercial Training, 48(4), 208-214.

Farrel, D. (1983), “Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect as responses to job dissatisfaction: a multidimensional scaling study”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 26, pp. 596-607.

Frooman, J., Mendelson, M. B., & Kevin Murphy, J. (2012).Transformational and passive avoidant leadership as determinants of absenteeism. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 33(5), 447-463.

Gillespie, N.A., & Mann, L. (2004) Transformational leadership and shared values; The building blocks of trust. Journal of managerial Psychology, 19 (6), 588-607.

Guinot, J., Chiva, R., & Roca-Puig, V. (2014). Interpersonal trust, stress and satisfaction at work: an empirical study. Personnel Review, 43(1), 96-115.

Hartog, D. N., Muijen, J. J., &Koopman, P. L. (1997). Transactional versus transformational leadership: An analysis of the MLQ. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 70(1), 19-34.

Hassan, M., Toylan, N. V., Semerciöz, F., &Aksel, I. (2012).Interpersonal trust and its role in organizations.International Business Research, 5(8), 33.

Hill, K., Chênevert, D., &Poitras, J. (2015). Changes in relationship conflict as a mediator of the longitudinal relationship between changes in role ambiguity and turnover intentions. International Journal of Conflict Management, 26(1), 44-67.

Holtz, B. C., & Hu, B. (2017). Passive leadership: relationships with trust and justice perceptions. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 32(1), 119-130.

Horwitz, I. B., Horwitz, S. K., Daram, P., Brandt, M. L., Brunicardi, F. C., &Awad, S. S. (2008). Transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant leadership characteristics of a surgical resident cohort: analysis using the multifactor leadership questionnaire and implications for improving surgical education curriculums. Journal of Surgical Research, 148(1), 49-59.

Katou, A. A. (2015). Transformational leadership and organizational performance: Three serially mediating mechanisms. Employee Relations, 37(3), 329-353.

Larzelere, R. E., & Huston, T. L. (1980).The dyadic trust scale: Toward understanding interpersonal trust in close relationships. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 595-604.

Lee, J. (2018). Passive leadership and sexual harassment: Roles of observed hostility and workplace gender ratio. Personnel Review, 47(3), 594-612.

Lee, K., & Allen, N. J. (2002). Organizational citizenship behavior and workplace deviance: The role of affect and cognitions. Journal of applied psychology, 87(1), 131.

Levine, T. R., &McCornack, S. A. (1991). The dark side of trust: Conceptualizing and measuring types of communicative suspicion. Communication Quarterly, 39(4), 325-340.

Lewis, J. D., &Weigert, A. (1985). Trust as a social reality. Social forces, 63(4), 967-985.

Long, C. S., Thean, L. Y., Ismail, W. K. W., &Jusoh, A. (2012). Leadership styles and employees’ turnover intention: Exploratory study of academic staff in a Malaysian College. World Applied Sciences Journal, 19(4), 575-581.

Malik, S. Z., Saleem, M., &Naeem, R. (2016).Effect of Leadership Styles on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour in Employees of Telecom Sector in Pakistan.Pakistan Economic and Social Review, 54(2), 385.

Mbah, S. E., &Ikemefuna, C. O. (2012).Job satisfaction and employees’ turnover intentions in total Nigeria Lagos State. International journal of humanities and social science, 2(14), 275-287.

Mesu, J., Riemsdijk, M. V., & Sanders, K. (2009). OCB’s in small businesses: a matter of leadership. In Paper HRM Conference, November.

Morrow, P. et al., 2005.The role of leader-member exchange in high turnover work environments. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(8), pp. 681-694

Nguni, S., Sleegers, P., &Denessen, E. (2006). Transformational and transactional leadership effects on teachers' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior in primary schools: The Tanzanian case. School effectiveness and school improvement, 17(2), 145-177.

Norris, N. (2007) Evaluation and Trust, Dilemmas of Engagement: Evaluation

and the New Public Management Advances in Program Evaluation, Volume

, 139–153,

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers' trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. The leadership quarterly, 1(2), 107-142.

Puni, A., Agyemang, C. B., &Asamoah, E. S. (2016). Leadership styles, employee turnover intentions and counterproductive work behaviours. International Journal of innovative research and development, 5(1).

Raziq, M. M., Borini, F. M., Malik, O. F., Ahmad, M., Shabaz, M. (2018). Leadership Styles, Goal Clarity, and Project Success: Evidence from Project-based Organizations in Pakistan.Leadership& Organization Development Journal.

Singh, U., &Srivastava, K. B. (2009).Interpersonal trust and organizational citizenship behavior. Psychological Studies, 54(1), 65-76.

Spence, J. R., Ferris, D. L., Brown, D. J., & Heller, D. (2011). Understanding daily citizenship behaviors: A social comparison perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(4), 547-571.

Stacey, R. D. (2002). Complexity and management.Routledge.

Suliman, A., & Al Obaidli, H. (2013). Leadership and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in the financial service sector: The case of the UAE. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, 5(2), 115-134.

Viitala, R., Kultalahti, S., &Kangas, H. (2017). Does strategic leadership development feature in managers’ responses to future HRM challenges? Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 38(4), 576-587.

Watrous, K. M., Huffman, A. H., & Pritchard, R. D. (2006).When coworkers and managers quit: The effects of turnover and shared values on performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 21(1), 103-126.

Wu, W. L., Lin, C. H., Hsu, B. F., &Yeh, R. S. (2009). Interpersonal trust and knowledge sharing: Moderating effects of individual altruism and a social interaction environment. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 37(1), 83-93.

Xirasagar, S. (2008).Transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership among physician executives.Journal of Health organization and management, 22(6), 599-613.

Yammarino, F. J., Spangler, W. D., & Bass, B. M. (1993). Transformational leadership and performance: A longitudinal investigation. The Leadership Quarterly, 4(1), 81-102.

Yasir, M., Imran, R., Irshad, M. K., Mohamad, N. A., & Khan, M. M. (2016). Leadership Styles in Relation to Employees’ Trust and Organizational Change Capacity: Evidence From Non-Profit Organizations. SAGE Open, 6(4), 2158244016675396.

Yoon, D., Jang, J., & Lee, J. (2016). Environmental management strategy and organizational citizenship behaviors in the hotel industry: The mediating role of organizational trust and commitment. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(8), 1577-1597.

Yukl, G. A. (2013). Leadership in organizations.Pearson Education India.




How to Cite

Omer Azam, Hafiz Ghufran Ali Khan, Asif Khan, & Abdul Zahid Khan. (2020). Impact of Passive Leadership on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Turnover Intentions; Mediating Effect of Organizational Interpersonal Trust. Review of Economics and Development Studies, 5(4), 663-674.