Effect of People, Process and Physical Evidence on Satisfaction of Sikh Pilgrims Visiting Pakistan: Moderating Role of Personal Perceived Risk of Terrorism


  • Asia Umar Khan Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Management Sciences, Islamia College Peshawar. Pakistan
  • Gohar Zaman Women University, Swabi. Pakistan
  • Qadar Bakhsh Baloch Institute of Business Studies and Leadership, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan. Pakistan




People, Physical Evidence, Process, Satisfaction, Personal Perceived Risk of Terrorism, Sikh Pilgrims.


The present study was intended to find out the impact of three important components of marketing mix for tourism i.e. People, Process and Physical Evidence on Satisfaction of Sikh Pilgrims visiting Pakistan and the moderating role of Personal Perceived Risk of Terrorism in the relationship between the aforementioned independent variables and Pilgrims Satisfaction. The present research is based on the philosophy of positivism and it is descriptive and deductive in approach. Data was collected from a sample of 357 Sikh Pilgrims. Multiple linear regression analysis was carried out to test the hypothesized effect of People, Process and Physical Evidence on satisfaction of Sikh Pilgrims and the moderating effect of Personal Perceived Risk of Terrorism. Findings of the study showed that Physical Evidence and People have a significant positive effect whereas Process has a significant negative effect on satisfaction of Sikh Pilgrims. Personal Perceived Risk of Terrorism was found to have an insignificant moderating effect on the relationship of Process, People and Physical Evidence with Satisfaction. The study might help uplift the tourism sector of Pakistan and enhance the relationship between people of different religions of the region.


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How to Cite

Asia Umar Khan, Gohar Zaman, & Qadar Bakhsh Baloch. (2020). Effect of People, Process and Physical Evidence on Satisfaction of Sikh Pilgrims Visiting Pakistan: Moderating Role of Personal Perceived Risk of Terrorism. Review of Economics and Development Studies, 5(3), 437-450. https://doi.org/10.26710/reads.v5i3.692